Finding your way by using the Southern Cross
Navigating at Night need not be as daunting as it sounds. Provided that the skies are working for you and are not covered in cloud. If you can find the Southern Cross, or ‘Crux’ by its astronomical name, you can easily find the South Celestial Pole (SCP), an imaginary point in the sky directly above south.
Imagine a line joining the two stars at the ‘head’ and the ‘foot’ of the cross. Extend the line out another four lengths (x) from the foot of the cross. This will determine the South Celestial Pole (the SCP). Then look straight down from the SCP to the horizon. You’ve found south!
Another slighty trickier, but more accurate, way of finding south is to use the Southern Cross and the pointer stars from the neighbouring constellation, Centaurus.
Draw a line through the two stars at the ‘head’ and the ‘foot’ of the cross and extend it to the dark patch of the sky the same way as in the first method (Line 1).
Then join a line between the two pointers (Line 2). Find the middle of Line 2 then draw a perpendicular line down toward Line 1 until the lines meet. The point at which the lines 1 and 3 intersect is the SCP. From there just look straight down to the horizon and you’ve found south.
Even though the Southern Cross moves around the sky during the year, the foot of the cross always points to the SCP, which is very handy if you’ve lost your compass or the sun’s gone down.
Finding your way by the light of the Moon
The moon has no light of its own. The light seen from the moon is a reflection of the sun. The shape of the reflected light varies as the Earth orbits around the sun. This can be useful for finding direction at night once you understand how this works. When it is a crescent moon it is really easy.
The moon rises in the east. That means that at midnight, it will be in the south and then set in the west. However, the angle of the moon’s orbit is less reliable than other objects in order to help you navigate.
You can however, use a crescent moon to navigate. If you draw an imaginary line down the side of the crescent moon (from tip-to-tip), that line will point you north (in the southern hemisphere) or south (in the northern hemisphere).
If the moon rises before sunset, the illuminated side of the moon will face west. If the moon rises after midnight, the bright side will face east. The reason this navigational method works is because the sun and moon move across the sky from east to west. Since the moon reflects the sun’s light, its bright side will be ‘pointing’ to the direction of the sun, or approximately east or west.